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Early life. Although he only accused three deputies by name (Pierre-Joseph Cambon, François René Mallarmé, and Dominique-Vincent Ramel-Nogaret), his speech seemed to also incriminate several others. [12], With these purges, the power of the Committee was reaffirmed. [6][7], During this time, two different factions rose in opposition to the restructured Revolutionary Government: the left-wing ultra-revolutionaries and the moderate right-wing citra-revolutionaries. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. His father, François Maximilien Barthélémy de Robespierre, was a lawyer at the Conseil d'Artois, and his mother Jacqueline Marguerite Carrault, was the daughter of a brewer. Occupation: French Revolutionary. supporters. opinions. The Committee of General Security already felt threatened by the Committee of Public Safety's new ability to issue arrest warrants, as well as by the new Police Bureau, which was created by Saint-Just and was being run by Robespierre in his absence, and which functions overlapped with that of the Committee of General Security. This, combined with the increasing demands of both the Committee on Public Safety and the National Convention washed away Robespierre's mental and physical health to the point he was forced to reduce his presence in the Jacobin Club and the National Convention. executed. all authority won him little. R. Maximilien Robespierre. He was bright, and went to the prestigious College Louis-le-Grand in Paris. Maximilien Robespierre (マクシミリアン・ロベスピエール Makushimirian・Robesupieeru)is a blond Poet with personal relations to Durand and Lia de Beaumont. [4], On 27 July 1793, Robespierre was elected to the Committee of Public Safety, of which he would remain a member up until his death. Born: May 6, 1758 In the months that followed “The secret of freedom lies in educating people, whereas the secret of tyranny is in keeping them … and to govern the country in the meantime, and Robespierre was elected New York: Longman, 1999. Died At Age: 36. He campaigned for universal male suffrage in France, price controls on basic food commodities and … [1] Moreover, it was precisely because he failed to name the condemned that terror spread through the Convention as the deputies started thinking that Robespierre was planning yet another purge like that of the Dantonists and Hébertists. Terror. The Death of Maximilien de Robespierre, July 28, 1794 awyers led the French Revolution. more moderate government, began with the deaths of Robespierre and his gathered to plan a rising of their own. night and executed the next day. Print Collection portrait file. [2][3] By the end of the next day, Robespierre was executed in the Place de la Revolution, where King Louis XVI had been executed a year earlier. Robespierre was born the son of a lawyer in Arras, France on May 6, 1758, but during Maximilien’s childhood his siblings and him were raised by their maternal grandparents because Robespierre’s mother’s death brought extreme sadness to his father He and his followers were quickly released, however, and they Maximilien De Robespierrewas executed, by way of the guillotine, on July 27, 1794. Robespierre. The “Great Terror” that followed, in which about 1,400 persons were executed, contributed to the fall of Robespierre … He was the oldest of four children. He was largely responsible for the Reign of Terror, in which thousands of suspected French traitors were executed. opponents took a stand against him and on July 27 they voted for his government and was upset with wartime shortages and increased prices, plans to take over the government. Although the festival was well accepted by the crowds, Robespierre's prominent position in it was suspicious in the eyes of some deputies, and muttering began about Robespierre's fanaticism and desire for power. Share with your friends. [10][8], The Citras (also known as Dantonists or Indulgents), formed around Georges Danton as well as the indulgents members of the Cordeliers Club, including Camille Desmoulins. [16][17] The fear of assassination drove Robespierre to take this measure: two assassination attempts against Robespierre and Collot d'Herbois had taken place on 23 and 24 May (4–5 Prairial), and the memory of Lepeletier's and Marat's murder still roused feelings in the Convention. A faction of the Convention banded together to destroy Robespierre before he destroyed the remaining members of the French government. Today there is consensus amongst historians that the exceptional revolutionary measures continued after the death of Robespierre. [35] He, together with the surviving deputies and seventeen other prisoners considered to be loyal Robespierrists (including Hanriot) were brought to the Revolutionary Tribunal and condemned to death. During the first period of the French Revolution (1789–91), in [21], On 28 June (10 Messidor), Saint-Just returned from the northern front bearing news: the Revolutionary Army had defeated the Austrian army in Belgium at the Battle of Fleurus, securing the road to Paris. [36], "Fall of Robespierre" redirects here. France, and practiced law in Arras. Maximilien de Robespierre was the leading voice of the government that Reaction, during which the Terror was ended and France returned to a More and more of the publishing a weekly political journal. 4 5 The news having been brought to Athens that citizens had been condemned to 6 death in the city of Argos, people ran to the temples, where the gods were called 7 upon to turn Athenians away from such cruel and dire thoughts.I come to ask, He took a radical, democratic stance and was known as the Incorruptible for his dedication to civic morality. [9] They pushed for stronger repression measures than those already in place during the Terror, and campaigned for de-Christianization. After the Third Estate, which represented commoners and the lower clergy, declared itself the National Assembly, Robespierre became a prominent member of the Revolutionary body. Paris, France these were the Hébertists, a group that controlled the Paris city Gender: Male Religion: Other Race or Ethnicity: White Occupation: Head of State, Attorney. [31], The Convention then voted to arrest five deputies – Robespierre, his brother, Couthon, Saint-Just, and Le Bas – as well as François Hanriot, and other Robespierrist officials. [19], More opposition came from the Committee of General Security, which had not been consulted over the contents of the Law. [14] Robespierre led the processions during the Festival in Honor of the Supreme Being celebrated on 8 June (20 Prairial). [33], Upon receiving news that Robespierre and his allies had not been imprisoned, the National Convention, which was in permanent session, declared that Robespierre, Saint-Just, and the other deputes were outlaws, and commanded armed forces to enter the Hôtel de Ville. Maximilien Robespierre: A lawyer and writer, Robespierre is one of (if not the) most important figures of the French Revolution. Robespierre Question: Was Maximilien Robespierre against the death penalty? There he shared classes with Camille Desmoulins, who for much of the revolution was … His ideas were seen as extreme: his belief in civil After Marat 's death, Maximilien Robespierre, leader of The Jacobins, was appointed as the head of The Committee of Public Safety on July 27, 1793. [15], Two days after the Festival, on 10 June (22 Prairial), Robespierre pushed the National Convention to pass a new law drafted by him and Georges Couthon which accelerated the trial process and extended the death penalty to include a new set of "enemies of the people" which included people seeking to reestablish the monarchy, interfering with food provisions, discrediting the National Convention, communicating with foreigners, among others. [13], Robespierre did not reappear in the National Convention until 7 May (18 Floréal). convicted, and executed in January 1793. Born: May 6, 1758 in Artois, France. [25] He delivered the speech first to the National Convention, and later that same day at the Jacobin Club. Opposition to Robespierre continued to grow. He is first seen leaving France with the Russian spy Vorontsov. Maximilien Robespierre--death. which acted to protect the republic during the dual problems of foreign war (most of Europe was fighting against the Revolutionary government in This became known as the Reign of Interestingly enough, Tussaud (possibly) claimed that the death mask was directly made with the help of Robespierre’s decapitated head after he was guillotined on July 28th, 1794. Born: 6-May-1758 Birthplace: Arras, France Died: 28-Jul-1794 Location of death: Paris, France Cause of death: Execution Remains: Buried, Errancis Cemetery, Paris, France. Maximilien Robespierre was born in Arras, in the old French province of Artois.His family has been traced back to the 12th century in Picardy; some of his direct ancestors in the male line worked as notaries in the village of Carvin near Arras from the beginning of the 17th century. He studied law through a scholarship and in 1789 was elected to be a representative of the Arras commoners in the Estates General. their members removed from the convention, arrested, and executed. His should be relaxed They were able to manipulate and inspire the mobs in the streets and co-opt some of the army to bring about political instability, revolt against the monarchy, and support for the destruction of private property, the power of the aristocracy, and the Church. As the revolution started Robespierre eagerly joined. Maximilien was … In April 1790, he preside… Jordan, David P. a voice calling for political change and wrote articles detailing his Robespierre faced increased opposition on both sides. Maximilien Marie Isidore de Robespierre was born in Arras on 6 May 1758. Nationality: France father, a lawyer, abandoned the family soon afterward. Hardman, John. Formerly a French secret agent, he turned against the King shortly before Lia's death. For the English theatrical play, see, Significant civil and political events by year, Division within the Revolutionary Government, Cobb, R. & C. Jones (1988) The French Revolution. Tens of thousands of people perished in The Terror, and Robespierre was particularly brutal and merciless in his sentencing. [33] A little after midnight, about fifty people, the five rebellious deputies, Dumas and Hanriot consulted on the first floor of the Hôtel de Ville. Although Robespierre was a bourgeoisie, he identified with the plight of the sans-culottes and would become their voice as the revolution progressed. Arras, France Robespierre politically was sympathetic toward the people especially those who were poverty-stricken and thoroughly against the death penalty. A group of representatives was quickly elected to draft a constitution While at university, he was deeply influenced by Enlightenment thinkers, and the idea of the equality of all men. Enjoy the best Maximilien Robespierre Quotes at BrainyQuote. Robespierre. Maximilien Robespierre was the poster boy of the French Revolution who, ... Robespierre’s death mask. Ever since he lost his head to Madame Guillotine in 1794, the historical jury has been out on the life and legacy of Maximilien de Robespierre, French revolutionary and architect of la … public, now that the military crisis was over, wanted a relaxation, not Left side – the 3D reconstruction; right side – a portrait of the revolutionary, circa 1790. France) and civil war (which threatened to bring down that government). He died because he was suspected to be an enemy of the revolution. Robespierre turned his anger on a group of moderates (those who prefer the Reign of Terror, in which thousands of suspected French traitors were [18] The law was not universally accepted in the Convention, and critics of Robespierre and Saint-Just would use it against them during the events of 9 Thermidor. [26] In it, he attempted both to defend himself from the rumors and attacks on his person that had been spreading since the start of the Reign of Terror; and to bring light to an anti-revolutionary conspiracy that he believed reached into the Convention and the Governing Committees. He was one of the most influential figures associated with the ‘Reign Of Terror’ and the ‘French Revolution’. In July 1794 Robespierre spoke for the need he was a harsh critic of the king, who was finally placed on trial, which the Estates General became the National Assembly, Robespierre made Paris, France. [23], Having abandoned both the Committee and the National Convention, which he stopped frequenting after his presidency ended on 18 June (30 Prairial),[24] Robespierre's absence allowed the breach between him and other members of the revolutionary government to widen. As a spokesman for the Jacobins in the National Convention, received a law degree from the Collège Louis-le-Grand in Paris, Maximilien de Robespierre Biography forum. When Robespierre's term as a legislator ended in September 1791, Maximilien RobespierreBiography. [36] He was guillotined at the same Place de la Révolution where his enemies King Louis XVI, Georges Danton, and Camille Desmoulins had been executed. Quotations by Maximilien Robespierre, French Leader, Born May 6, 1758. up and executed, including Georges Jacques Danton (1759–1794), [26], Later the same day he presented the speech at the Jacobin Club, where it was received with overwhelming support despite some initial opposition. [5] During the months between September 1793 and July 1794, the Committee's power increased dramatically due to several measures instated during the Terror, such as Law of Suspects, and the latter Law of 14th Frimaire, becoming the de facto executive branch of the Revolutionary Government, under the supervision of the National Convention. an increase, of the terror. When he was a young boy, his mother died, and his father abandoned the family. The Coup d'état of 9 Thermidor or the Fall of Maximilien Robespierre refers to the series of events beginning with Maximilien Robespierre's address to the National Convention on 8 Thermidor Year II (26 July 1794), his arrest the next day, and his execution on 10 Thermidor Year II (28 July 1794). His family has been traced back to the 15th century in Vaudricourt, Pas-de-Calais; one of his ancestors, Robert de Robespierre, worked as a notary in Carvinthe mid-17th century. Haydon, Colin, and William Doyle, eds. [27] Both Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne and Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois, who opposed to the printing of the speech, were driven out of the Jacobin Club. 1758, in Arras, France. This victory signaled the end of the war against the Austrians, and with it, the end of the Terror government. Robespierre, wishing to get rid of both internal and external enemies, objected to the disbandment of the war government. the First French Republic was established. many speeches. French forensic scientists Philippe Charlier and Philippe Froesch have now created an unnervingly realistic 3D facial reconstruction based on a copy of Robespierre’s death mask, supposedly made by Madame Tussaud from his decapitated head. Maximilien de Robespierre was the leading voice of the government that ruled France during the French Revolution. which citizens would live honest, moral lives and serve the community. During this period he was a Before 22 Prairial the Revolutionary Tribunal had pronounced 1220 death-sentences in thirteen months; during the forty-nine days between the passing of the law and the fall of Robespierre 1376 persons were condemned, including many innocent victims. New York: Free Press, 1985. Thousands were put to death with a He attended a local school and proved an exceptional student, winning a scholarship to Paris. He believed in creating a R… arrest. McGowen, Tom. to attend. less abrupt change) called the Girondins, leading the effort to have Voices from a momentous epoch 1789-1795, p. 230, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fall_of_Maximilien_Robespierre&oldid=983937613, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 October 2020, at 04:38. [1], On the following day, this tension in the Convention allowed Jean-Lambert Tallien, one of the conspirators who Robespierre had in mind in his denunciation, to turn the Convention against Robespierre and decree his arrest. [11] Both these factions were charged as conspirators against the Revolutionary Government and sentenced to the guillotine: the Hébertists on 24 March (4 Germinal) and the Dantonists on 5 April (16 Germinal). Robespierre. Nickname: The Incorruptible. During his absence from both the National Convention and the Committee of Public Safety through the months of June and July (Messidor), Robespierre prepared a speech to be delivered on 26 July (8 Thermidor). Following this event, Robespierre stopped participating directly in the deliberations of the Committee of Public Safety. He began to assume a public role as His mother died when Robespierre was an infant and his father abandoned the family shortly after, leaving Robespierre and his siblings to be raised by their grandparents. quick trial or no trial at all. At age thirty he was elected to the Estates General, the [29] He was interrupted by Tallien, who complained that both Robespierre and Saint-Just had broken with the Committees and now spoke only for themselves; and then by Billaud-Varenne, who related how he and Collot had been driven out of the Jacobin Club the previous day, and who accused Robespierre of conspiracy against the Convention. deeply suspicious of the king, spoke and wrote in opposition to the rallied their forces; Robespierre and his supporters were captured that course of events until August 1792, when the monarchy was overthrown and [8] The Ultras (also known as Hébertists or Exagérés) gathered around Jacques Hébert, as well as leaders of the Paris Commune and the exagérés of the Cordeliers Club. Author: Pierre Roch Vigneron. He was largely responsible for For this day he had planned a speech addressing the relationship between religion, morality, and the republican principles; and to establish the Cult of the Supreme Being in place of the Cult of Reason promoted by de-Christianizers like the Hébertists. Maximilien Robespierre was an eminent French politician and lawyer. Maximilien Robespierre was born in Arras, France, in 1758. Died: July 28, 1794 Died: July 28, 1794 in Paris, France. On July 28, 1794, Robespierre and his followers were guillotined. History >> Biography >> French Revolution. Robespierre had leaders of both groups rounded He did not reappear until 23 July (5 Thermidor), when he sat for another joint convention of the two Committees put forward in a failed attempt to resolve their mutual differences.[25]. The Revolutionary Career of Maximilien Robespierre. Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre was born on May 6, AKA Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre. Maximilien de Robespierre was born in Arras in the old French province of Artois. Robespierre remained in Paris, spending time at the Jacobins and Portrait of Maximilien Robespierre. Included among Died On: July 28, 1794. Best known for: Ruling France during the Reign of Terror. He did not have a trial before his death. Robespierre and his [32][30] They were taken before the Committee of General Security and sent to different prisons. 10339684, citing Cimetière des Errancis (Defunct), Paris, City of Paris, Île-de-France, France ; Maintained by Find A Grave . [32] None of the city prisons wanted to arrest the deputies and officials, and once a deputation from the Paris Commune, which had risen in support of Robespierre, arrived to the city prisons demanding they refuse to take in the arrested, the prison officials complied. In July 1793 Robespierre was elected to the Committee of Public Safety, Robespierre, But the opposition leaders French legislature. By 2:30 a.m., they had entered the Hôtel de Ville and made the arrest. supporters claimed that they wanted to create a Republic of Virtue in He believed that virtue and service to your country should count far more than class and personal gains. 1 On the Death Penalty: (excerpted) 2 Maximilien Robespierre, speech given at the Constituent Assembly, France 3 June 22, 1791. French political leader and lawyer. Maximilien Robespierre, president of the Jacobin Club, ... suspended a suspect’s right to public trial and to legal assistance and left the jury a choice only of acquittal or death. It executed people who were suspected of supporting the king or making Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow, 2000. critic of King Louis XVI (1754–1793) and those who supported a Robespierre and the French Revolution in World History. Maximilien Robespierre promised to usher a fairer, more representative form of government to the French people. and the Indulgents, moderate Jacobins who felt that the Reign of Terror In it, he attempted both to defend himself from the rumors and attacks on his person that had been spreading since the start of the Reign of Terror; and to bring light to an anti-revolutionary cons… Maximilien Robespierre, in full Maximilien-François-Marie-Isidore de Robespierre, (born May 6, 1758, Arras, France—died July 28, 1794, Paris), radical Jacobin leader and one of the principal figures in the French Revolution. [30] Robespierre attempted to defend himself, but was silenced by the commotion within the Convention and by the screaming deputies condemning him as tyrant and conspirator. Robespierre was born in Arras, about 115 miles (180 kilometres) north of Paris, in 1758. They were strongly opposed to the machinery of the Terror and policies of the Committee of Public Safety. ruled France during the French Revolution. [28], In the morning of 27 July (9 Thermidor), Louis Antoine de Saint-Just started addressing the Convention without having shown his speech to the two Committees. This was done both with the intention of diminishing Robespierre, and to mock his religious positions and the Cult of The Supreme Being. The period of the Thermidorian Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed ), memorial page for Maximilien Robespierre (6 May 1758–28 Jul 1794), Find a Grave Memorial no. limited, constitutional monarchy (rule by a single person). His mother died when he was only six and his During his absence from both the National Convention and the Committee of Public Safety through the months of June and July (Messidor), Robespierre prepared a speech to be delivered on 26 July (8 Thermidor). who had once been a close associate of his. of the Committee of Public Safety to continue its activities. since the war had ended. [20] As payment, they presented a report on the ties between the English enemy and the self-proclaimed "Mother of God", Catherine Théot, who had prophesied that Robespierre was a new Messiah. Died: July 28, 1794. He served as a member of the ‘Committee of Public Safety’. He delivered the speech first to the National Convention, and later that same day at the Jacobin Club. Law through a scholarship and in 1789 was elected to the French revolution his dedication to civic morality assume Public. [ 30 ] they pushed for stronger repression measures than those already place... 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