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White phosphorus is a pyrophoric material, that is, it is spontaneously flammable). Phosphorus burns carry a greater risk of mortality than other forms of burns due to the absorption of phosphorus into the body through the burned area, resulting in liver, heart and kidney damage, and in some cases multiple organ failure. on whether white phosphorus should be considered a chemical weapon and thus be outlawed by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) which went into effect in April 1997. White phosphorus can cause injuries and even death in three ways: by burning deep into tissue, by being inhaled as a smoke, and by being ingested. The Associated Press reported that an 8-year-old Afghan girl, Razia, was injured when a white phosphorus shell ripped through her home in the Tagab Valley of Kapisa province in June 2009. [5], The accepted lethal dose when white phosphorus is ingested orally is 1 mg per kg of body weight, although the ingestion of as little as 15 mg has resulted in death. It was used by Saddam Husayn in 1988, and by the US in Fallujah in 2003–2004. 00 mts /isotank yellow phosphorus p4 99. Over seventy years after the end of hostilities, the effects of WWII still linger. The appearance of this cloud forming is easily recognised; one sees a shower of burning particles spraying outward, followed closely by distinctive streamers of white smoke, which rapidly coalesce into a fluffy, very pure white cloud (unless illuminated by a coloured light source). Dave Roever, Vietnam veteran and resiliency coach, speaks to 101st Airborne Division Soldiers about his injuries sustained in the Vietnam War. The molecule is described as consisting of six single P–P bonds. Also a type of aerial bomb. The Goldstone Report showcases lies about white phosphorus. yellow phosphorus p4 99. White phosphorus grenades were used in Vietnam for destroying Viet Cong tunnel complexes as they would burn up all oxygen and suffocate the enemy soldiers sheltering inside. At least five American Medal of Honor citations mention their recipients using white phosphorus grenades to clear enemy positions, and in the 1944 liberation of Cherbourg alone, a single U.S. mortar battalion, the 87th, fired 11,899 white phosphorus rounds into the city. White phosphorus was widely credited by Allied soldiers for breaking up German infantry attacks and creating havoc among enemy troop concentrations during the latter part of the war. British soldiers also made extensive use of white phosphorus grenades during the Falklands War to clear out Argentinepositions as the peaty soil they were constructed on tended to lesse… When the carbon disulfide evaporated, the phosphorus would burst into flames, and probably also ignite the highly flammable carbon disulfide fumes. White phosphorus is a material made from a common allotrope of the chemical element phosphorus that is used in smoke, tracer, illumination and incendiary munitions. There are multiple international laws that could be seen to regulate white phosphorus use. In practice, the droplets quickly reach a range of sizes suitable for scattering visible light and then start to dissipate from wind or convection. This effect has been likened to three dimensional textured privacy glass—the smoke cloud does not simply obstruct an image, but thoroughly scrambles both visual and infrared radiation, interfering with infra-red optics and weapon-tracking systems, serving as a protection for military forces from guided weapons such as anti-tank missiles. These create smoke screens to mask movement, position or the origin of fire from the enemy. An annex lists chemicals that fall under this definition and WP is not listed in the Schedules of chemical weapons or precursors.[8]. It is not illegal under international law for … But white phosphorus continued to be used by the US in Korea, Vietnam and later by Russian forces in the First and Second Chechen Wars (1994–2000). 76 or Special Incendiary Phosphorus grenade, which consisted of a glass bottle filled with a mixture similar to Fenian fire, plus some latex (see also Molotov cocktail, Greek fire). [4] There are reports of individuals with a history of oral ingestion who have passed phosphorus-laden stool ("smoking stool syndrome").[6]. A white phosphorus attack during the Vietnam War (National Museum of the U.S. Air Force) Goodbye, Willie Pete. Since then white phosphorous has been used widely in a long list of conflicts, including World War 1 and II as well as in Korea and Vietnam. The convention defines a "toxic chemical" as a chemical "which through its chemical action on life processes can cause death, temporary incapacitation or permanent harm to humans or animals" (CWC, II). When the carbon disulfide evaporated, the phosphorus would burst into flames, and probably also ignite the highly flammable carbon disulfide fumes. At the start of the Normandy campaign, 20% of American 81mm mortar rounds were white phosphorus. Weight-for-weight, phosphorus is the most effective smoke-screening agent known, for two reasons: firstly, it absorbs most of the screening mass from the surrounding atmosphere and secondly, the smoke particles are an aerosol, a mist of liquid droplets which are close to the ideal range of sizes for Mie scattering of visible light. Wounds contaminated by white phosphorus … Other common names include WP, and the slang term "Willie Pete," which is dated from its use in Vietnam, and is still sometimes used in military jargon. The Pentagon's admission - despite earlier denials - that US troops used white phosphorus as a weapon in Falluja last year is more than a public relations issue - … Russia used it in Chechnya. White phosphorus, along with other incendiaries, has been used by Syrian government forces battling insurgents in Aleppo and elsewhere. The M34 WP Grenade replaced the World War II M15 WP grenade. Weapons used by Vietnamese irregular forces, http://ihl.ihlresearch.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=page.viewpage&pageid=2105, The Legality of the Use of White Phosphorus by the United States Military During the 2004 Fallujah Assaults. White phosphorus is a material made from a common allotrope of the chemical element phosphorus that is used in smoke, tracer, illumination and incendiary munitions. News about White Phosphorus, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. In addition, the many organic compounds of… The New York Times has documented that, as recently as October 2011, U.S. and other international forces in Afghanistan were using white phosphorus … However, no casualties have been recorded from the effects of white phosphorus smoke alone in combat operations and there are no confirmed deaths resulting from exposure to phosphorus smoke.Script error[citation needed] The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry has set an acute inhalation Minimum Risk Level (MRL) for white phosphorus smoke of 0.02 mg/m³, the same as fuel oil fumes. This has often been read as excluding white phosphorus munitions from this protocol, as well. When phosphorus burns in air, it first forms diphosphorus pentoxide (which exists as tetraphosphorus decoxide except at very high temperatures): Diphosphorus pentoxide is extremely hygroscopic and quickly absorbs even minute traces of moisture to form liquid droplets of phosphoric acid: Since an atom of phosphorus has an atomic mass of 31 but a molecule of phosphoric acid has a molecular mass of 98, the cloud is already 68% by mass derived from the atmosphere (i.e. The rounds exploded with a huge puff of white smoke from the hotly burning phosphorus, and were used as marking rounds or incendiary rounds. White phosphorus munitions can be used on battlefields to make smoke screens, generate illumination, mark targets or burn bunkers and buildings. Because the WP smoke is formed from fairly hot combustion, the gasses in the cloud are hot, and tend to rise. The tetrahedral arrangement results in ring strain and instability. Various disadvantages of white phosphorus are discussed below, but one which is particular to smoke-screening is "pillaring". 3.2 kilograms of smoke for every kilogram of WP); it may absorb more because phosphoric acid and its variants are hygroscopic. White phosphorus smoke irritates the eyes, mucous membranes of the nose, and respiratory tract in moderate concentrations, while higher concentrations may produce severe burns. This mixture was known as "Fenian fire" and allegedly was used by disgruntled itinerant workers in Australia to cause delayed destruction of shabby sleeping quarters. White phosphorus bombs and shells are incendiary weapons, but can also be used as offensive anti-personnel flame compounds capable of causing serious burns or death. White phosphorus is used industrially to manufacture chemicals used in fertilizers, food additives, and cleaning compounds. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. White phosphorus is believed to have been first used by Fenian arsonists in the 19th century in the form of a solution in carbon disulfide. The harm caused by white phosphorus munitions, used in more recent conflicts, exemplifies these weapons’ humanitarian problems. As a result, smoke-producing white phosphorus munitions are very common, particularly as smoke grenades for infantry, loaded in grenade launchers on tanks and other armored vehicles, or as part of the ammunition allotment for artillery or mortars. [4] These weapons are particularly dangerous to exposed people because white phosphorus continues to burn unless deprived of oxygen or until it is completely consumed. White Phosphorus in Spec Ops: The Line and the Transition of FPS Shooters The player character, Captain Martin Walker. The USA signed Protocols I and II on 24 March 1995 under the Clinton Administration (and the amended article II on 24 May 1999) and later Protocols III, IV, and V, on 21 January 2009 under the Obama Administration. Two different crystalline forms are known. Ferrophosphorus, a combination of phosphorus with iron, is used as an ingredient in high-strength low-alloy steel. Burning white phosphorus produces a hot, dense, white smoke consisting mostly of phosphorus pentoxide. Such heat is produced by this reaction that the element bursts into a yellow flame and produces a dense white smoke. The walls glowed red? The Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, not the Chemical Weapons Convention, goes on, in its Protocol III, to prohibit the use of all air-delivered incendiary weapons against civilian populations, or for indiscriminate incendiary attacks against military forces co-located with civilians. In an 2005 interview with RAI, Peter Kaiser, spokesman for the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (an organization overseeing the CWC and reporting directly to the UN General Assembly), questioned whether the weapon should fall under the convention's provisions: Kaiser was a staff spokesman for the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. [17], Arms control status and military regulations. [1] Other common names include WP, and the slang term "Willie Pete," which is dated from its use in Vietnam, and is still sometimes used in military jargon. Other approaches include white phosphorus-soaked felt pads (which also burn more slowly, and pose a reduced risk of incendiarism) and PWP, or plasticised white phosphorus. This mixture was known as \"Fenian fire\" and allegedly was used by disgruntled itinerant workers in Australia to cause delayed destruction of s… "White phosphorus (P4) is the elemental form of phosphorus used in smoke munitions. Britain in Falklands. It has a high vapor pressure and will readily sublimate when exposed to air. The form used by the military is highly energetic (active) and ignites once it is exposed to oxygen. Because WP is also pyrophoric, most munitions of this type have a simple burster charge to split open the casing and spray fragments of WP through the air, where they ignite spontaneously and leave a trail of rapidly thickening smoke behind each particle. In the interwar years, the U.S. Army trained using white phosphorus, by artillery shell and air bombardment. Some countries have begun using red phosphorus instead. ... Vietnam '67 Vietnam: The Chemical War. US-led forces in #Iraq and #Syria are accused of using white #phosphorus bombs. At around 4.30 p.m., a white phosphorous shell came through the ceiling into the room where they were sheltering. Incendiary bombs were used extensively by the German, British and U.S. air forces against civilian populations and targets of military significance in civilian areas, including London, Hamburg, and Dresden. The only one fielded was the Grenade, No. Incandescent particles of WP cast off by a WP weapon's initial explosion can produce extensive, deep second and third degree burns. Napalm was infamously used by US forces in the Vietnam War and are mixtures of a gelling agent and a volatile petrochemical which can ignite and stick to the skin. տոնական կայք", "New evidence of using phosphorus munitions with clear chemical elements by #Azerbaijani military in #Artsakh/#Karabakh - against forests & most importantly civilians - civilians are hiding in forests during these days, causing mass destructions #DontBeBlind #terrorism #WarCrimes", https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK224560/, https://jramc.bmj.com/content/jramc/148/4/395.full.pdf, "ATSDR – Minimal Risk Levels for Hazardous Substances (MRLs)", "TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR WHITE PHOSPHORUS", https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/wp.htm, "The Use of White Phosphorus and the Law of War", https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/incendiary-legal.htm, "Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)", The Legality of the Use of White Phosphorus by the United States Military During the 2004 Fallujah Assaults, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=White_phosphorus_munitions&oldid=991287089, Wikipedia extended-confirmed-protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles with dead external links from January 2020, Articles which use infobox templates with no data rows, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 07:51. It came in two versions, one with a red cap intended to be thrown by hand, and a slightly stronger bottle with a green cap, intended to be launched from the Northover projector (a crude 2.5 inch blackpowder grenade launcher). These were improvised anti-tank weapons, hastily fielded in 1940 when the British were awaiting a German invasion after losing the bulk of their modern armaments in France in May 1940. White phosphorus (WP) is a flare- and smoke-producing incendiary device or smoke-screening agent that is made from a common allotrope of the chemical element phosphorus. As an incendiary weapon, white phosphorus burns fiercely and can set cloth, fuel, ammunition and other combustibles o… Vietnam War is a FANDOM Lifestyle Community. 9% min as 150ppm max s 50ppm max origin vietnam packing net 21. White phosphorus is believed to have been first used by Fenian arsonists in the 19th century in the form of a solution in carbon disulfide. The use of incendiary weapons against civilians was banned by signatory countries in the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons Protocol III. Because of the great weight efficiency of white phosphorus smoke, it is particularly suited for applications where weight is highly restricted, such as hand grenades and mortar bombs. white phosphorus a type of explosive round from artillery, mortars, or rockets. According to family members who survived, there was intense fire and white smoke in the room, the walls of which were glowing red. [2] As an incendiary weapon, white phosphorus burns fiercely and can set cloth, fuel, ammunition and other combustibles on fire, and cause serious burns or death. White phosphorus … Late in the war, some of these bombs used white phosphorus (about 1–200 grams) in place of magnesium as the igniter for their flammable mixtures. The U.S. Army and Marines used white phosphorus shells in 107-mm (4.2 inch) mortars. Exposure to heavy smoke concentrations of any kind for an extended period (particularly if near the source of emission) does have the potential to cause illness or even death. One reason why this occurs is the tendency of the element to stick to the skin. It’s time to stop using white phosphorus … In some cases, burns are limited to areas of exposed skin because the smaller WP particles do not burn completely through personal clothing before being consumed. On August 5th, a German woman accidentally set her coat on fire with decades-old white phosphorus… "[15] At the same time, other field manuals discuss the use of white phosphorus against personnel. The convention is meant to prohibit weapons that are "dependent on the use of the toxic properties of chemicals as a method of warfare" (Article II, Definitions, 9, "Purposes not Prohibited" c.). The British Army introduced the first factory-built WP grenades in late 1916. It is believed that eight or nine men in this group, known as the Sydney Twelve, had been framed by the police. It has been used in the past as a pesticide and in fireworks. When exposed to air, it spontaneously ignites and is oxidized rapidly to phosphorus pentoxide. "[14] However, the 11-year-old ST 100-3 Battle Book, a student text published by the US Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth states that "It is against the law of land warfare to employ WP against personnel targets. The United States has used white phosphorous shell came through the ceiling into room. [ 12 ], the U.S. Army trained using white phosphorus these weapons’ humanitarian problems Army and Marines used phosphorus... A pungent, garlic-like smell forces battling insurgents in Aleppo and elsewhere napalm, terrorizing enemies harm... ) mortars the phosphorus would burst into flames, and tend to rise discuss the use of phosphorus... 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